Transport for London helpfully provides visitors with a map that shows walking times between stations on the London Underground see http//content.tfl.gov.uk/walking-tube-map.pdf. Suppose you are doing research for a book on the architecture of Underground stations, and your task for today requires you to walk from Tottenham Court Road to Kings Cross St Pancras, following the routes of the Underground lines to ensure you walk past each station on your chosen route. You may take whichever route you prefer, and for the purposes of this question it is assumed you favour

University of London
Computing and Information Systems/Creative Computing CO3310 Artificial intelligence
Coursework assignment 1 2019–2020

Introduction

• The essential reading for this coursework assignment is Russell, S and P. Norvig
Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. (London: Pearson, 2010) 3rd edition.
• You may also find it useful to consult:
o Mackworth, A.K and D. L. Poole Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017) 2nd edition. The full text and a repository of code examples are freely available online at https://artint.info/.
o Hodges, W. Logic. (London: Penguin Books, 2001) 2nd edition.
o Introduction to Logic, a series of tutorials from Oxford University’s Philosophy Department: http://logic.philosophy.ox.ac.uk/.
• All websites cited in this coursework assignment were last visited in December 2019.
• You should list all references at the end of your work, and they should be properly cited whenever referred to. Answers that consist entirely or predominantly of quoted material are unlikely to gain high marks, even if properly referenced.
• Where you are asked to explain or justify your answer, unless otherwise stated, you should write no more than one or two sentences.
• You are advised to read through the coursework commentaries from previous years before attempting these questions. Examiners often encounter errors that could have been avoided by following advice given in the commentaries.
• Please try to keep your answers concise. It is quite possible that a submission of 10 pages could score as highly as one of 30 or more.

Important
Submit your work as a single PDF file (not a zip file) with an appendix containing your Prolog source code and screenshots of your results, using the following file-naming conventions:
YourName_SRN_COXXXXcw#.pdf (e.g. GraceHopper_920000000_CO3310cw1.pdf)
• YourName is your full name as it appears on your student record (check your student portal).
• SRN is your Student Reference Number, for example 920000000.
• COXXXX is the course number, for example CO3310.
• cw# is either cw1 (coursework 1) or cw2 (coursework 2).
There are 100 marks available for this assignment.
Marks may be deducted if your submission is not in the required format.
REMINDER: It is important that your submitted assignment is your own individual work and, for the most part, written in your own words. You must provide appropriate in-text citation for both paraphrase and quotation, with a detailed reference section at the end of your assignment (this should not be included in any word count). Copying, plagiarism and unaccredited and wholesale reproduction of material from books, online sources, etc. is

unacceptable, and will be penalised (see our guide on how to avoid plagiarism on the VLE). You can also look at the end of any journal or conference paper to get an idea of how to cite your reference material appropriately.

Question 1: Search

Transport for London helpfully provides visitors with a map that shows walking times between stations on the London Underground: see http://content.tfl.gov.uk/walking-tube-map.pdf. Suppose you are doing research for a book on the architecture of Underground stations, and your task for today requires you to walk from Tottenham Court Road to Kings Cross St Pancras, following the routes of the Underground lines to ensure you walk past each station on your chosen route. You may take whichever route you prefer, and for the purposes of this question it is assumed you favour the fastest route. When answering parts (c) and (d) below, you should briefly describe each algorithm and show the contents of the open list at each step from the start state until a goal state is found.

a. Explain in your own words what is meant by the following terms, in the context of AI Search:

i. Frontier
ii. Successor function
iii. Heuristic
iv. Admissibility
[4 marks]
b. Write a problem formulation for the activity described above, including precise descriptions of the initial state, the actions available at each state, a goal test and a path cost function. Note that you are only required to specify the actions available at stations that feature in the search trees you construct in your answers to parts (c) and
(d) below.

[8 marks]

c. Show how the quickest route will be calculated by each of the following search strategies:

i. Breadth-first search
ii. Depth-first search with iterative deepening
iii. Uniform-cost search
[12 marks]

d. Now find the fastest walking time from each relevant station to Kings Cross using an online application such as http://walkit.com/. Show a list of these timings and use them as a heuristic to determine the route that will be calculated by the A* algorithm.

[16 marks]

Question 2: Formal logic, knowledge representation and symbolic reasoning
Prolog is a declarative programming language that allows you to create a knowledge base by writing first-order logic sentences, and then pose queries to that knowledge base. The language itself takes care of performing the necessary inference; your role is primarily that of correctly specifying the problem and the query you need answered.
You may use any implementation of Prolog for this question. SWI-Prolog is recommended as it is very straightforward to install and use. A current stable version for your platform can be freely downloaded from http://www.swi-prolog.org/, where you will also find comprehensive documentation.
You are advised to read through the whole of parts (c) and (d) before starting to answer them.
a. Explain in your own words what is meant by the following terms, in the context of formal logic:
i. soundness
ii. completeness
iii. entailment
iv. satisfiability

b. Using truth tables, show whether:
i. (p → q) & (q → r) entails p → r
ii. (p → q) → r is equivalent to p → (q v r)

Explain your answer.

[4 marks]

[6 marks]

c. Represent the following statements as formulas of Predicate Calculus, stating the intended interpretation of any predicates and constants that you use. You should give two versions of each formula, one using the existential quantifier  and one using the universal quantifier .

i. Someone who writes novels is a novelist.
ii. All novels are books.
iii. All novelists, poets and journalists are writers.
iv. Poets are not the only writers.
v. Some novelists are American and some are Indian.
vi. Not all writers are American or Indian.

[15 marks]

d. Encode the following facts as Prolog clauses. NB you may need to code more than one clause for each numbered sentence. You should keep the queries (i-v) below in mind when deciding how to structure your clauses.
1. Olga Tokarczuk is Polish and wrote the novel Flights.
2. Martha Gellhorn was an American novelist and journalist.
3. Sylvia Plath was American and wrote a poem called “Ariel”.
4. Arundhati Roy is an Indian activist and novelist.
5. George Eliot was British and wrote the novel Middlemarch.

Use your Prolog implementation to derive answers to the following queries, based on the information given in 15 above. You may need to encode some of your answers to Question 2(c) and/or other reasonable general statements as Prolog clauses, in addition to your encodings of 1-5 above. Explain your results.
i. Give the name of a British writer.
ii. Is Tokarczuk a novelist?
iii. Was Gellhorn a poet?
iv. Name an American writer who was not a journalist.
v. Give the nationality of a writer who is also an activist.
[15 marks]

Question 3: Probabilistic reasoning.
a. Explain the following terms in your own words, in the context of probabilistic reasoning:

i. Probability distribution
ii. Marginalising
iii. Conditioning
iv. Prior probability
v. Posterior probability
[5 marks]

b. Suppose there is a test for an illness called Galen’s Disease, which shows positive in 90 per cent of patients who have the disease and in 2 per cent of patients who do not have the disease. Suppose 30,000 out of a population of 6 million have Galen’s Disease at any given time. If everyone in the population is tested, what is the probability that someone who tests positive for the disease actually has it? Explain your answer with reference to Bayes’ Rule.
[15 marks]

[Total: 100 marks]

[END OF COURSEWORK ASSIGNMENT 1]

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